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History and Development of Fleckvieh Breed
During the first half of the 19th century, a great number of cattle breeds and cattle strains were bred in the what is now the Czech Republic. The original domestic cattle, typical for central Europe is called Cervinky. These animals were bred on the gentry and church estates. The Cervinky cattle were upgraded by crossing them with imported animals, which came mainly from area of Austria. Since the second half of the 19th century, a Simmental cattle was imported in increasing numbers from Switzerland. At the close of the19th century, the Fleckvieh cattle were living in many areas of the Czech Republic. In 1920, the records of the breeding of pied cattle were consolidated. Some of the top European bulls were bred with cows to start new lines of animals in Bohemia.
Crossing with Dairy Cattle Breeds
In the postwar years after 1945 the breeding of Fleckvieh cattle was oriented towards the goal of producing offspring with triple performance qualities. More than 1/3 of animals was used for draft purposes. This influenced the type of animals who would be the most desirable as well as defining what would be their ideal performance parameters. But, these animals were not able to conform to the desired trait of higher animal body density. Because of this, the population was upgraded by using Ayshires, and later, Red Holstein cattle with the aim of maintaining the double performance (meat-milk) characteristics. The percentage of upgraded animals was from 25% to 37%. However,these cross breedings were not entirely successful.
After 70 years, the large amount of cows which were cross bred to Black-pied bulls led to drastic changes in the profile of the cattle population in the Czech Republic.